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No One Tells You About Blood Pressure Basics

Increasing blood pressure affects one million people all over the world and comes to the top in the cause of death. blood pressure doubles the risk of heart disease, coronary disease, congestive heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and peripheral artery disease. Though blood pressure lowering medication decrease risk.EpidemiologyBlood pressure increases with age and vary among populations and even in the same country. Systolic blood pressure increases with age >60 years and diastolic blood pressure is going to decrease after age 55. So, widening the pulse pressure. In the united-state increasing high blood pressure is due to obesity. The prevalence of blood pressure and stroke mortality is higher. Environmental and genetic factors may contribute to local and racial variations in hypertensive prevalence. Now, people are living in a more urbanized area so their lifestyle changes and leads to obesity. 60% of hypertensive are 20% overweight. High sodium intake and low calcium and pot…
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The Hidden Agenda Of Blood Pressure Management

The examination starts with full history and physical examination to confirm a diagnosis of blood pressure, screen for cardiovascular disease risk factors, and screen for secondary causes of blood pressure. Now  New android sphygmomanometers devices come for blood pressure measurement because of old devices with hazards of mercury toxicity. The initial assessment is required systemically in every blood pressure patient such as renal, endocrine, metabolic, and others.Treatment of blood pressureLifestyle modification of blood pressure patientIt has surely had a role in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and recommended for pre-hypertensive and adjuvant therapy. Modification ought to address cardiovascular risks, although these changes do not produce significant blood pressure reduction to cut down therapy.Weight reductionMaintain BMI<25 kg/m2Salt reduction<6 g NaCl/dayDASH dietMore fruits, vegetables , low fat dairy productalcohol<2 drinks/d men, <1 drinks/d in wom…

What’s So Trendy About Management Of Diabetes Mellitus?

GoalsThe goals management of Diabetes mellitus are to 1) stop symptoms related to hyperglycemia (increase glucose) 2) reduce the long term microvascular and macrovascular complication of diabetes mellitus, and 3) normalized lifestyle as possible. The patient with diabetes mellitus needs education and medicines to keep a normal level of glucose, and management of diabetes related complications. Symptoms of diabetes mellitus are resolved when it normalized glucose levels. The management of diabetes mellitus patients need a multidisciplinary team. Patient’s input associated with primary care providers and need subspecialists to treat complications and management of diabetes mellitus are necessary.The ongoing aspect of comprehensive diabetes careWe will discuss different terminology such as intensive insulin therapy, intensive glycemic control, and comprehensive diabetes care, to focus on optimal diabetic care. The morbidity and mortality can be prevented by getting over the diabetic comp…

Diabetes Mellitus - insulin vs glucose

Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that manifests as increase glucose in the blood. Diabetes mellitus has many types and multiple etiology, mainly gene and environmental factors. There are mainly three reasons for increase blood glucose 1.decrease insulin secretion2. Decrease glucose utilization 3.increase production of glucose. Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD), no traumatic lower-limb amputations, and adult blindness It is a high risk of cardiovascular disease.
Classification DM is classified as a type 1 DM and type 2 DM. however, other types of diabetes in which molecular pathogenesis is better understood and associated with a single gene defect. Type 1 DM develops due to autoimmunity against beta cells which produce insulin so there is near no insulin. Type 2 DM develops due to multiple causes by insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and increased liver glucose production. Type 2 DM disease progr…

Management of COVID -19(ARDS)

COVID-19Management of mild cases · Mild cases are those with low-grade fever/cough/malaise/rhinorrhea/sore throat WITHOUT any shortness of breath
· Admission in COVID care centers
· Contact and droplet precautions, strict hand hygiene
· Symptomatic treatment
· Tab Hydroxychloroquine 400 mg BD for 1 day followed by 400 mg OD for 4 days in patients
with high-risk factors for a severe disease may be considered
Indications for hospital admission(moderate case) The following criteria may be applied to consider for admission (Any ONE of the following):
1. Respiratory rate > 24/min
2. SpO2 < 94% on room air
3. Those at high risk for severe disease:
     a. Age > 60 years
     b. Cardiovascular disease including hypertension
     c. Diabetes mellitus/other immunocompromised states
     d. Chronic lung/liver/kidney disease
     e. Cerebrovascular disease
Consider Tab HCQ** (400 mg BD x 1 day f/b 400 mg OD x 4 days) **
Oxygen Support:
Target SpO2: 92-96% (88-92% in patients with COPD)
The p…